نقل قول ها

نقل قول ها
گاهی لازم است مطلبی را که گفته ایم یا حرفی را که دیگران گفته اند را مجددا تکرار کنیم. این تکرار ما به دو صورت خواهد بود یا مطلب را به همان صورت کلمه به کلمه تکرار می کنیم( نقل قول مستقیم) و یا دوباره آن مطلب را با بیان خودمان نقل می کنیم (نقل قول غیر مستقیم).

نقل قول مستقیم(direct/quoted speech )
در نقل قول مستقیم ما دقیقا کلمات گوینده را بکار می بریم و در هنگام نوشتن از علامت نقل قول”
” استفاده می کنیم. در زبان انگلیسی می توانیم نقل قول را هم در ابتدا و هم در انتهای جمله قرار دهیم.

He said,” I need some money.”
“I need some money,” he said.
“The beach is the best place to go,” he said.
“The beach is the best place to go,” he told me.
“I’m sorry to be late,” Ann told Sarah.

نکته: ما در نقل قول ها چه مستقیم و چه غیر مستقیم معمولا از شکل گذشته ساده say یا tell استفاده می کنیم.

direct-quoted-speech

نکته: say و tell هر دو برای به معنی گفتن هستند با این تفاوت که ما هرگز مستقیما بعد از say مفعول بکار نمی بریم.

Not they said me, “we’re tired.”
They said, “We’re tired.”
یا
They told me, “We’re tired.”

و اگر بخواهیم حتما از مفعول استفاده کنیم قبل از آن to می گذاریم. اما معمولا زمانی از say استفاده می کنیم که نمی خواهیم از شنونده نامی ببریم.

He said something to me.
Not he told he had been sick.
He said he had been sick.

اما بعد از tell معمولا مفعول بکار می بریم. به همین دلیل وقتی می خواهیم نام شنونده را بیان کنیم بسیار متداول تر است که از tell استفاده کنیم.

He told everybody about his information.
Can you tell me your name?

نقل قول غیر مستقیمindirect/reported speech

Ahmad told him he liked that car.
My teacher told me that I had to work hard.
They said it was a great haircut

در نقل قول غیر مسقیم بدون آنکه دقیقا از کلمات گوینده استفاده کنیم گفته ی او را نقل می کنیم. کلمه that می تواند معرف نقل قول غیر مسقیم باشد اما باید توجه داشته باشید که ما هرگز در این نوع از نقل قول از علامت نقل قول” ” استفاده نمی کنیم.

She said she went home yesterday.
Not she said “she went home yesterday.”

در نقل قول غیر مستقیم در صورتی که فعل گزارش دهنده ما گذشته ساده باشد(said/told) بعضی از اجزای جمله مثل زمان فعل، قید زمان هم تغییر می کند. این تغییرات مطابق جدولهای زیر انجام می شود. اما توجه داشته باشید که در نقل قول مستقیم هرگز هیچ کدام از اجزای جمله تغییر نمی کنند.

نقل قول غیر مستقیم

نقل قول مستقیم

نقل قول غیر مستقیم

نقل قول مستقیم

He said that the car was red.

He said, “the car is red.”

گذشته ساده

حال ساده

She said that she was going to the restaurant.

“I’m going to the restaurant,” she said.

گذشته استمراری

حال استمراری

He said he had found his keys.

“I found my keys,” he said.

گذشته کامل

گذشته ساده

She told him that she had heard the news.

She told him, “I’ve heard the news.”

گذشته کامل

حال کامل

در نقل قول غیر مستقیم افعال ناقص (modal) نیز تغییر می کنند.

نقل قول غیر مستقیم

نقل قول مستقیم

نقل قول غیر مستقیم

نقل قول مستقیم

He said that he would stay with us.

He said,” I will stay with you.”

Would

Will

She told me that she could speak English.

She told me, “I can speak English.”

Could

Can

She said that the storm might last all night.

She said, “the storm may last all night.”

Might

May

My mother said I had to clean the kitchen.

My mother said, “I must clean the kitchen.”

Had to

Must

در واقع همانطور که دیدید در نقل قول غیر مستقیم وقتی فعل گزارش دهنده ما گذشته ساده باشد (told/said) زمان فعل را یک زمان به عقب بر می گردانیم. بنابراین در افعال زیر هیچ تغییری رخ نمی دهد

نقل قول غیر مستقیم

نقل قول مستقیم

افعالی که تغییر نمی کنند.

My mom told me I ought to come home.

He said that he should have gone.

“You ought to come home,” my mom told me.

“I should have gone”

Should, could, might, ought to

He said that he had got home before noon.

He said, “I had gotten home before noon.”

گذشته کامل

She told me if she left, she would call me.

He said that if he had known, he would have told me.

“If I left, I would call you,” she told me.

“If I had known, I would have told you,” Said he.

شرطی غیر محتمل حال و گذشته(شرطی نوع دوم و سوم)

در نقل قول غیر مستقیم علاوه بر زمان فعل، قیدهای زمان هم به تناسب آن تغییر می کنند.

نقل قول غیر مستقیم

نقل قول مستقیم

then

now

That day

Today

The next day

Tomorrow

The day before

Yesterday

That week/ month/ year

This week/ month/ year

The week/ month/ year before

Last week/ month/ year

The following week/ month/ year

Next week/ month/ year

She told me she had written the letter the day before.
My father said he was going to the airport the next day.
The teacher said we had to hand in our works the fallowing month.
Sam said that if I’d had time, I would have come with us that day.

در نقل قول غیر مستقیم here و this نیز تغییر می کنند.

Here  there
This  that
“This is very nice.”
He said that was very nice.

“I’ll meet you here,” She said.
She said that she would meet me there.

نکته: در نقل قول غیر مستقیم علاوه بر فعل و قید، ضمایر هم ممکن است تغییر کنند.

Maryam told Mahdi: I like your books.
Maryam told Mahdi that she liked his books.

البته مواردی هم در نقل قول غیر مستقیم وجود دارد که تغییر زمان فعل الزامی نیست.
الف) وقتی که مطلب در همان لحظه گفته شده باشد:

-I don’t like to read your books.
-what did you say?
-I said I don’t like to read them.
یا
-I said I didn’t like to read them.

ب) چیزی که همچنان صحیح است.

My mother said my uncle is going to teach me.
یا
My mother said my uncle was going to teach me.

ج) جملاتی که درباره ی حقایق کلی یا قوانین علمی باشند.

Ali told me Sa’di is famous in Iran.
یا
Ali told me Sa’di was famous in Iran.

اما زمانی که فعل گزارش دهنده ما حال ساده باشد دیگر نیازی نیست زمان فعل جمله را تغییر دهیم.

Ann: I have breakfast every day.
Ann says she has breakfast every day.
Not Ann says she had breakfast every day.

نکته: در روزنامه ها،مجلات، تلوزیون و رادیو معمولا برای گفتن خبر زمان حال ساده بکار می برند.

Many workers report that they don’t have free time during the day.

دستور، راهنمایی، درخواست، دعوت در نقل قول غیر مستقیم
در نقل قول غیر مستقیم برای بیان موارد بالا از فرمول(شکل ساده فعل+to) استفاده می کنیم.

“Point to the door,” said the teacher.
The teacher said to point to the door.
The teacher told me to pint to the window.

“Could you please give me your pen?”
She asked me to give her my pen.

“Would you like to join us for dinner?”
They invited me to join them for dinner.

و برای شکل منفی هم از مصدر + not استفاده می کنیم.

“Don’t clean up my desk.”
He asked me not to clean up his desk.

“Don’t stay up late at night”
My dad told me not to stay up late at night.

“Please don’t be late”
Dan asked me not to be late.

استفاده از if یا whether در بیان yes/no questions:

“Can you bring me some coffee?” she asked?
She asked if I could bring her some coffee.

“Do you know how to learn a foreign language?”
She asked if I known how to learn a foreign language.

همانطور که در مثالهای بالا دیدید این سوالها با do, does, did, to be, can, should,… شروع می شوند. ما برای بیان اینگونه سوالات در نقل قول غیر مستقیم بعد از فاعل و فعلا گزارش دهنده از if یا whether استفاده می کنیم بعد جمله ی مورد نظر را از حالت سوالی در می آوریم و در ادامه می نویسیم. فقط باید دقت کنید که جمله ما مثل همه جمله ها در نقل قول غیر مستقیم در صورت نیاز باید زمان فعل، قید زمان یا ضمایرش را متناسب با زمان فعل گزارش دهنده مان تغییر دهیم.

نکته: whether از if رسمی تر است. ما همچنین می توانیم از whether or not هم در این گونه جملات استفاده کنیم.

My mother wants to know whether you’ll come for dinner.
She wanted to know whether or not you would come for dinner.

استفاده از کلمات پرسشی در نقل قول غیر مستقیم:
بکار بردن کلمات پرسشی(what, why,..) برای بیان سوالاتی که با اینگونه کلمات شروع می شوند درست مثل کار با if و whether است.

“What is your name?”
She asked me what my name was.

دقت کنید جمله درنقل قول غیر مستقیم از حالت سولی خارج می شود. ما در انتهای جمله دیگر از علامت سوال استفاده نمی کنیم. به تناسب زمان فعل گزارشگر و فعلا جمله دقت کنید. و دیگرdoes, do, did را نمی نویسیم.

“What did you say?”
He told me what I had said.

در جمله بالا همانطور که قبلا گفتیم چون زمان جمله گذشته بود ما در نقل قول غیر مستقیم به گذشته کامل تبدیل کردیم.

“I don’t know who our teacher is.”
He said he didn’t know who our teacher was.

“Where is your home?” I asked.
I asked where his/her home was.

“Do you know how to use this program?”
She asked whether I knew how to use this program.

“Do the homework” said the teacher.
The teacher said to do the homework.

She strongly advised her,” do not smoke.”
She strongly advised her not to smoke.

My father always told me that time is money.

“Don’t get angry while commuting,” he told her.
He told her not to get angry while commuting.

“Don’t be so sensitive,” my sister advised me.
My sister advised me not to be so sensitive.

She told me that Jack is still living at home.
He said that if he had the money, he would travel, but that he is/ was a little short of cash.
He just said that he can’t understand you.
Dan said that he’s going to the United States next month.

به واژه just دقت کنید.

“Do you have an extra pen?” my friend just asked me.
My friend just said if I have an extra pen.

“I’m really sick and I’m having headaches.”
He said he was really sick and that he was having headaches.

“My headache was getting worse all the time, so I went to the doctor.”
He told me his headache had been getting worse, so he had gone to the doctor.

“I hadn’t finished it”
He said he hadn’t finished it.

شما ممکن است این را هم بپسندید