فعل لازم و متعدی در زبان انگلیسی

افعال متعدی (transitive) و لازم (intransitive) در زبان انگلیسی

فعل ( verb)
کلمه ایست که بر انجام کاری یا داشتن حالتی دلالت می کند. افعال برحسب گرفتن مفعول به دو نوع تقسیم می شوند:
افعال متعدی (transitive) و لازم (intransitive)

Ideas about friendship differ from person to person.
Several companies are competing for the contract.
My friend is always arguing.
She awakened to the sound of birds singing.
Have you ordered yet?
I don’t really know, I’m just guessing.
The rate of inflation increased by 20%.


۱- فعل لازم ( intransitive) :فعلی است که احتیاج به مفعول (object) ندارد وبدون مفعول معنی جمله کامل است. در این حالت کلمه ای که بعد از فعل می آید متمم نامیده می شود..
She lies. → (The verb ‘lie‘ doesn’t take any object)
The building collapsed. → (The verb ‘collapse’ doesn’t take any object)
I go to school.

2-فعل متعدی( transitive): بدون مفعول معنی جمله کامل نمی شود. افعال متعدی یا یک مفعول و یا دو مفعول می گیرند.

مفعول با واسطه + حرف اضافه+ مفعول بی واسطه+ فعل متعدی

They played soccer. → (The verb play takes ONE objectsoccer‘)
They sent him a postcard. → (The verb send takes TWO objectshim‘ and ‘a postcard‘)
The cat caught the mouse.

مفعول:
مفعول بر دو نوع است:
۱-مفعول بی واسطه direct object 
A direct object answers the question “what?” or “whom?
Example:
David repaired his carhis car is the direct object of the verb repaired. ( What did David repair?)
He invited Mary to the party → Mary is the direct object of the verb invited. (Whom did he invite?)

۲-مفعول با واسطه indirect object

An indirect object answers the question “to whom?”, “for whom?”, “for what?”

مفعول با واسطه در واقع گیرنده و دریافت کننده مفعول بی واسطه است و یا شرکت کننده ایی است که رویداد روی او تاثیر گذاشته است. برای اینکه مفعول با واسطه وجود داشته باشید باید حتما یک مفعول بی واسطه ایی در جمله باشد وگرنه مفعول با واسطه در جمله وجود نخواهد داشت.

An indirect object is the recipient of the direct object, or an otherwise affected participant in the event. There must be a direct object for an indirect object to be placed in a sentence. In other words an indirect object cannot exist without a direct object.

Examples:

They sent him a postcard – him is the indirect object of the verb sent. (To whom did they send a postcard?)
He bought his son a bike – his son is the indirect object of the verb bought. (For whom did he buy a bike?)

 verb

نکته:

اگر مفعول با واسطه ضمیر و یا یک کلمه ی کوچک باشد آنرا بعد از فعل متعدی بیان می کنند.

.ولی اگر مفعول با واسطه چند کلمه ویا کلمه ی طولانی باشد آنرا بعد از مفعول بی واسطه بیان می کنند

He will give the book to who ever wants it.
مثال:

Forget him!
He fills the post satisfactorily.
Her cruel remarks cut him deeply.
Payam doesn’t concern himself with the details.
For a long time his death was concealed from her.
First I’ll explain the rules of the game.
Your name has been deleted from the list.
Sarah chose her words carefully.
Stop pulling her hair!
How long has he hold office.