زمان حال کامل (ماضی نقلی) (Present Perfect)

زمان حال کامل (ماضی نقلی) (Present Perfect)

حال-کامل

همه ما در زندگی تجربه های جالب و یا حتی ناراحت کننده ایی داشته ایم که ممکن است حرف زدن درباره آنها دیگران را غافلگیر یا شگفت زده کند مثلا من یکبار به سختی با یک کامیون تصادف کردم و تجربه چشیدن طعم مرگ را داشته ام یا غارنوردی کرده ام. اتفاق هایی هم بوده که هرگز تجربه نکردیم مثلا من هرگز سوار بالون نشده ام

در زبان انگلیسی زمان حال کامل معمولا مسئول بیان اینگونه ماجراجویی هاست.

البته در شرایط دیگری هم بکار می رود مثلا

  1. برای تاکید بر نتیجه

She has written five letters.

2.  کار یا اتفاقی که همچنان درحال انجام است

School has not started yet.

3. کاری که به تازگی پایان یافته یا متوقف شده

She has cooked dinner.

4. پایان یک رویداد یا اتفاقی که بر زمان حال تاثیر گذاشته

I have lost my key.

5. کاری که یک بار، هرگز، یا چند بار پیش از لحظه ایی که داریم درباره آن صحبت می کنیم رخ داده

I have never been to Australia.

طرز ساختن حال کامل:

ماضی نقلی (یا حال کامل) از have/ has به اضافه شکل سوم فعل ساخته می شود.
have: we, they, you, I , فاعل جمع
has: he, she, it, فاعل مفرد

طرز منفی وسوالی کردن حال کامل:

برای منفی کردن کافی است به  have/ has یک not اضافه کنیم و برای سوالی کردن کافی است  have/ has را به اول جمله ببریم.

Have you eaten Lazania?
Have you finished your homework?
Have you seen ‘Ghaveh Talkh’?
Have you played Santor?

I haven’t lived here for years.
I havn’t checked www.salamzaban.com yet.
I havn’t gone to Charmahalo Bakhtiari.
I havn’t seen her.
I havn’t won the game.

قیدهایی که معمولا با زمان حال کامل بکار می روند:

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

حال-کامل-2

فرق بین since و for

فرق since با for در این است که since به مبدا زمان اشاره می کند و for به طول زمان.

I haven’t played rugby since I left university.
She left London ten years ago, and I haven’t seen her since.
The factory has been here since the 1970s.
It was exactly five years since her father had died.
I left school in 1995, and since then I‘ve lived in London.

I have been in Yazd for two months.

Me and my wife have lived with each other for 1 years.

We have lived in this apartment for 19 years.

She has been my classmate for 3 years.

نکته:

یه مشکلی که همه زبان آموزها در کاربرد زمان  دارند اینه که بعد از خواندن تمام زمان ها و پس از یاد گیری تمام نکات همچنان براشون خیلی مشکل هست تصمیم بگیرند کدوم رو بکار ببرند

ببینید غیر از آزمون ها که شما بر اساس برخی نشانه ها مثل (since و for برای زمان حال کامل) نوع زمان رو تشخیص می دید، در صحبت کردن عادی فقط بر اساس قصد و نیتی که دارید تصمیم می گیرید کدوم رو انتخاب کنید مثلا هر وقت می خواید روی طول مدت تاکید کنید مثلا”در تمام عمرم یکبار ماهیگیری کردم یا من از سال 2008 تا الان اینجام” در چنین مواقعی از حال کامل استفاده می کنید همین!

حالا این مثال ها رو بررسی کنید بیشتر مطلب دست تون میاد:

They’ve been married for nearly fifty years.
She has lived in Liverpool all her life.
He has written three books and he is working on another one.
I have worked here since I left school.
I can’t get in the house. I’ve lost my keys.
Teresa isn’t at home. I think she has gone shopping.

They haven’t lived here for years.
She has worked in the bank for five years.
We have had the same car for ten years.
Have you played the piano since you were a child?
They have seen that film six times
It has happened several times already.
She has visited them frequently.
We have eaten at that restaurant many times.
I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.

A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.